coremltools.models.neural_network¶
Neural network builder class to construct Core ML models.
Functions
set_transform_interface_params (spec, ...[, ...]) 
Common utilities to set transform interface params. 
Classes
NeuralNetworkBuilder (input_features, ...[, mode]) 
Neural network builder class to construct Core ML models. 

class
coremltools.models.neural_network.
NeuralNetworkBuilder
(input_features, output_features, mode=None)¶ Neural network builder class to construct Core ML models.
The NeuralNetworkBuilder constructs a Core ML neural network specification layer by layer. The layers should be added in such an order that the inputs to each layer (refered to as blobs) of each layer has been previously defined. The builder can also set preprocessing steps to handle specialized input format (e.g. images), and set class labels for neural network classifiers.
Please see the Core ML neural network protobuf message for more information on neural network layers, blobs, and parameters.
See also
MLModel
,datatypes
,save_spec
Examples
# Create a neural network binary classifier that classifies # 3dimensional data points # Specify input and output dimensions >>> input_dim = (3,) >>> output_dim = (2,) # Specify input and output features >>> input_features = [('data', datatypes.Array(*input_dim)] >>> output_features = [('probs', datatypes.Array(*output_dim))] # Build a simple neural network with 1 inner product layer >>> builder = NeuralNetworkBuilder(input_features, output_features) >>> builder.add_inner_product(name = 'ip_layer', W = weights, b = bias, input_channels = 3, output_channels = 2, ... has_bias = True, input_name = 'data', output_name = 'probs') # save the spec by the builder >>> save_spec(builder.spec, 'network.mlmodel')

__init__
(input_features, output_features, mode=None)¶ Construct a NeuralNetworkBuilder object and set protobuf specification interface.
Parameters: input_features: [(str, datatypes.Array)]
List of input feature of the network. Each feature is a (name, array) tuple, where name the name of the feature, and array is an datatypes.Array object describing the feature type.
output_features: [(str, datatypes.Array or None)]
List of output feature of the network. Each feature is a (name, array) tuple, where name is the name of the feature, and array is an datatypes.Array object describing the feature type. array can be None if not known.
mode: str (‘classifier’, ‘regressor’ or None)
Mode (one of ‘classifier’, ‘regressor’, or None).
When mode = ‘classifier’, a NeuralNetworkClassifier spec will be constructed. When mode = ‘regressor’, a NeuralNetworkRegressor spec will be constructed.
See also
Examples
# Construct a builder that builds a neural network classifier with a 299x299x3 # dimensional input and 1000 dimensional output >>> input_features = [('data', datatypes.Array((299,299,3)))] >>> output_features = [('probs', datatypes.Array((1000,)))] >>> builder = NeuralNetworkBuilder(input_features, output_features, mode='classifier')

add_activation
(name, non_linearity, input_name, output_name, params=None)¶ Add an activation layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer
non_linearity: str
The non_linearity (activation) function of this layer. It can be one of the following:
‘RELU’: Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) function.
‘SIGMOID’: sigmoid function.
‘TANH’: tanh function.
‘SCALED_TANH’: scaled tanh function, defined as:
f(x) = alpha * tanh(beta * x)
where alpha and beta are constant scalars.
‘SOFTPLUS’: softplus function.
‘SOFTSIGN’: softsign function.
‘SIGMOID_HARD’: hard sigmoid function, defined as:
f(x) = min(max(alpha * x + beta, 1), 1)
where alpha and beta are constant scalars.
‘LEAKYRELU’: leaky relu function, defined as:
f(x) = (x >= 0) * x + (x < 0) * alpha * x
where alpha is a constant scalar.
‘PRELU’: Parametric ReLU function, defined as:
f(x) = (x >= 0) * x + (x < 0) * alpha * x
where alpha is a multidimensional array of same size as x.
‘ELU’: Exponential linear unit function, defined as:
f(x) = (x >= 0) * x + (x < 0) * (alpha * exp(x)  1)
where alpha is a constant scalar.
‘PARAMETRICSOFTPLUS’: Parametric softplus function, defined as:
f(x) = alpha * log(1 + exp(beta * x))
where alpha and beta are two multidimensional arrays of same size as x.
‘THRESHOLDEDRELU’: Thresholded ReLU function, defined as:
f(x) = (x >= alpha) * x
where alpha is a constant scalar.
‘LINEAR’: linear function.
f(x) = alpha * x + beta
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
params: [float]  [numpy.array]
Parameters for the activation, depending on non_linearity. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
 When non_linearity is one of [‘RELU’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘TANH’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SOFTPLUS’, ‘SOFTSIGN’], params is ignored.
 When non_linearity is one of [‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’], param is a list of 2 floats [alpha, beta].
 When non_linearity is one of [‘LEAKYRELU’, ‘ELU’, ‘THRESHOLDEDRELU’], param is a list of 1 float [alpha].
 When non_linearity is ‘PRELU’, param is a list of 1 numpy array [alpha]. The shape of alpha is (C,), where C is either the number of input channels or 1. When C = 1, same alpha is applied to all channels.
 When non_linearity is ‘PARAMETRICSOFTPLUS’, param is a list of 2 numpy arrays [alpha, beta]. The shape of alpha and beta is (C, ), where C is either the number of input channels or 1. When C = 1, same alpha and beta are applied to all channels.
See also

add_batchnorm
(name, channels, gamma, beta, mean=None, variance=None, input_name='data', output_name='out', compute_mean_var=False, instance_normalization=False, epsilon=1e05)¶ Add a Batch Normalization layer. Batch Normalization operation is defined as:
y = gamma * (x  mean) / sqrt(variance + epsilon) + beta Parameters
 name: str
 The name of this layer.
 channels: int
 Number of channels of the input blob.
 gamma: numpy.array
 Values of gamma. Must be numpy array of shape (channels, ).
 beta: numpy.array
 Values of beta. Must be numpy array of shape (channels, ).
 mean: numpy.array
 Means of the input blob on each channel. Must be numpy array of shape (channels, ).
 variance:
 Variances of the input blob on each channel. Must be numpy array of shape (channels, ).
 input_name: str
 The input blob name of this layer.
 output_name: str
 The output blob name of this layer.
 compute_mean_var: bool
 Set to True if mean and variance is to be computed from the input data.
 instance_normalization: bool
 Set compute_mean_var and this to True to perform instance normalization i.e., mean and variance are computed from the single input instance.
 epsilon: float
 Value of epsilon. Defaults to 1e5 if not specified.
See also

add_bias
(name, b, input_name, output_name, shape_bias=[1])¶ Add bias layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
b: int  numpy.array
Bias to add to the input.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
shape_bias: [int]
List of ints that specifies the shape of the bias parameter (if present). Can be [1] or [C] or [1,H,W] or [C,H,W].
See also

add_bidirlstm
(name, W_h, W_x, b, W_h_back, W_x_back, b_back, hidden_size, input_size, input_names, output_names, inner_activation='SIGMOID', cell_state_update_activation='TANH', output_activation='TANH', peep=None, peep_back=None, output_all=False, forget_bias=False, coupled_input_forget_gate=False, cell_clip_threshold=50000.0)¶ Add a Bidirectional LSTM layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
W_h: [numpy.array]
List of recursion weight matrices for the forward layer. The ordering is [R_i, R_f, R_z, R_o], where R_i, R_f, R_z, R_o are weight matrices at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, hidden_size).
W_x: [numpy.array]
List of input weight matrices for the forward layer. The ordering is [W_i, W_f, W_z, W_o], where W_i, W_f, W_z, W_o are weight matrices at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, input_size).
b: [numpy.array]
List of biases for the forward layer. The ordering is [b_i, b_f, b_z, b_o], where b_i, b_f, b_z, b_o are biases at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. If None, biases are ignored. Otherwise the shapes of the biases are (hidden_size, ).
W_h_back: [numpy.array]
List of recursion weight matrices for the backward layer. The ordering is [R_i, R_f, R_z, R_o], where R_i, R_f, R_z, R_o are weight matrices at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, hidden_size).
W_x_back: [numpy.array]
List of input weight matrices for the backward layer. The ordering is [W_i, W_f, W_z, W_o], where W_i, W_f, W_z, W_o are weight matrices at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, input_size).
b_back: [numpy.array]
List of biases for the backward layer. The ordering is [b_i, b_f, b_z, b_o], where b_i, b_f, b_z, b_o are biases at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of the biases (hidden_size).
hidden_size: int
Number of hidden units. This is equal to the number of channels of output shape.
input_size: int
Number of the number of channels of input shape.
input_names: [str]
The input blob name list of this layer, in the order of [x, h_input, c_input, h_reverse_input, c_reverse_input].
output_names: [str]
The output blob name list of this layer, in the order of [y, h_output, c_output, h_reverse_output, c_reverse_output].
inner_activation: str
Inner activation function used at input and forget gate. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’]. Defaults to ‘SIGMOID’.
cell_state_update_activation: str
Cell state update activation function used at the cell state update gate. [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’]. Defaults to ‘TANH’.
output_activation: str
Activation function used at the output gate. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’]. Defaults to ‘TANH’.
peep: [numpy.array]  None
List of peephole vectors for the forward layer. The ordering is [p_i, p_f, p_o], where p_i, p_f, and p_o are peephole vectors at input gate, forget gate, output gate. The shapes of the peephole vectors are (hidden_size,). Defaults to None.
peep_back: [numpy.array]  None
List of peephole vectors for the backward layer. The ordering is [p_i, p_f, p_o], where p_i, p_f, and p_o are peephole vectors at input gate, forget gate, output gate. The shapes of the peephole vectors are (hidden_size,). Defaults to None.
output_all: boolean
Whether the LSTM layer should output at every time step. Defaults to False.
 If False, the output is the result after the final state update.
 If True, the output is a sequence, containing outputs at all time steps.
forget_bias: boolean
If True, a vector of 1s is added to forget gate bias. Defaults to False.
coupled_input_forget_gate : boolean
If True, the inpute gate and forget gate is coupled. i.e. forget gate is not used. Defaults to False.
cell_clip_threshold : float
The limit on the maximum and minimum values on the cell state. Defaults to 50.0.
See also

add_convolution
(name, kernel_channels, output_channels, height, width, stride_height, stride_width, border_mode, groups, W, b, has_bias, is_deconv=False, output_shape=None, input_name='data', output_name='out', dilation_factors=[1, 1], padding_top=0, padding_bottom=0, padding_left=0, padding_right=0, same_padding_asymmetry_mode='BOTTOM_RIGHT_HEAVY')¶ Add a convolution layer to the network.
Please see the ConvolutionLayerParams in Core ML neural network protobuf message for more information about input and output blob dimensions.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
kernel_channels: int
Number of channels for the convolution kernels.
output_channels: int
Number of filter kernels. This is equal to the number of channels in the output blob.
height: int
Height of each kernel.
width: int
Width of each kernel.
stride_height: int
Stride along the height direction.
stride_width: int
Stride along the height direction.
border_mode: str
Option for the padding type and output blob shape. Can be either ‘valid’ or ‘same’. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
groups: int
Number of kernel groups. Input is divided into groups along the channel axis. Each kernel group share the same weights.
W: numpy.array
Weights of the convolution kernels.
 If is_deconv is False, W should have shape (height, width, kernel_channels, output_channels), where kernel_channel = input_channels / groups
 If is_deconv is True, W should have shape (height, width, kernel_channels, output_channels / groups), where kernel_channel = input_channels
b: numpy.array
Biases of the convolution kernels. b should have shape (outputChannels, ).
has_bias: boolean
Whether bias is ignored.
 If True, bias is not ignored.
 If False, bias is ignored.
is_deconv: boolean
Whether the convolution layer is performing a convolution or a transposed convolution (deconvolution).
 If True, the convolution layer is performing transposed convolution.
 If False, the convolution layer is performing regular convolution.
output_shape: tuple  None
Either None or a 2tuple, specifying the output shape (output_height, output_width). Used only when is_deconv == True. When is_deconv == False, this parameter is ignored. If it is None, the output shape is calculated automatically using the border_mode. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
dilation_factors: [int]
Dilation factors across height and width directions. Must be a list of two positive integers. Defaults to [1,1]
padding_top, padding_bottom, padding_left, padding_right: int
values of height (top, bottom) and width (left, right) padding to be used if border_more is “valid”.
same_padding_asymmetry_mode : str.
Type of asymmetric padding to be used when border_mode is ‘same’. Can be either ‘BOTTOM_RIGHT_HEAVY’ or ‘TOP_LEFT_HEAVY’. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
Depthwise convolution is a special case of convolution, where we have:
kernel_channels = 1 (== input_channels / groups) output_channels = channel_multiplier * input_channels groups = input_channels W : [Kernel_height, Kernel_width, 1, channel_multiplier * input_channels]
See also

add_crop
(name, left, right, top, bottom, offset, input_names, output_name)¶ Add a cropping layer to the model. The cropping layer have two functional modes:
 When it has 1 input blob, it crops the input blob based on the 4 parameters [left, right, top, bottom].
 When it has 2 input blobs, it crops the first input blob based on the dimension of the second blob with an offset.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
left: int
Number of elements to be cropped on the left side of the input blob. When the crop layer takes 2 inputs, this parameter is ignored.
right: int
Number of elements to be cropped on the right side of the input blob. When the crop layer takes 2 inputs, this parameter is ignored.
top: int
Number of elements to be cropped on the top of the input blob. When the crop layer takes 2 inputs, this parameter is ignored.
bottom: int
Number of elements to be cropped on the bottom of the input blob. When the crop layer takes 2 inputs, this parameter is ignored.
offset: [int]
Offset along the height and width directions when the crop layer takes 2 inputs. Must be a list of length 2. When the crop layer takes 1 input, this parameter is ignored.
input_names: [str]
The input blob name(s) of this layer. Must be either a list of 1 string (1 input crop layer), or a list of 2 strings (2input crop layer).
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_custom
(name, input_names, output_names, custom_proto_spec=None)¶ Add a custom layer.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_names: [str]
The input blob names to this layer.
output_names: [str]
The output blob names from this layer.
custom_proto_spec: CustomLayerParams
A protobuf CustomLayerParams message. This can also be left blank and filled in later.

add_elementwise
(name, input_names, output_name, mode, alpha=None)¶ Add an elementwise operation layer to the model.
Parameters: The name of this layer
name: str
input_names: [str]
A list of input blob names of this layer. The input blobs should have the same shape.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
mode: str
A string specifying the mode of the elementwise layer. It can be one of the following:
 ‘CONCAT’: concatenate input blobs along the channel axis.
 ‘SEQUENCE_CONCAT’: concatenate input blobs along the sequence axis.
 ‘ADD’: perform an elementwise summation over the input blobs.
 ‘MULTIPLY’: perform an elementwise multiplication over the input blobs.
 ‘DOT’: compute the dot product of the two input blobs. In this mode, the length of input_names should be 2.
 ‘COS’: compute the cosine similarity of the two input blobs. In this mode, the length of input_names should be 2.
 ‘MAX’: compute the elementwise maximum over the input blobs.
 ‘MIN’: compute the elementwise minimum over the input blobs.
 ‘AVE’: compute the elementwise average over the input blobs.
alpha: float
if mode == ‘ADD’ and there is only one input_name, alpha is added to the input if mode == ‘MULTIPLY’ and there is only one input_name, alpha is multiplied to the input
See also

add_embedding
(name, W, b, input_dim, output_channels, has_bias, input_name, output_name)¶ Add an embedding layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer
W: numpy.array
Weight matrix of shape (output_channels, input_dim).
b: numpy.array
Bias vector of shape (output_channels, ).
input_dim: int
Size of the vocabulary (1 + maximum integer index of the words).
output_channels: int
Number of output channels.
has_bias: boolean
Whether the bias vector of this layer is ignored in the spec.
 If True, the bias vector of this layer is not ignored.
 If False, the bias vector is ignored.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_flatten
(name, mode, input_name, output_name)¶ Add a flatten layer. Only flattens the channel, height and width axis. Leaves the sequence axis as is.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
mode: int
 If mode == 0, the flatten layer is in CHANNEL_FIRST mode.
 If mode == 1, the flatten layer is in CHANNEL_LAST mode.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_gru
(name, W_h, W_x, b, hidden_size, input_size, input_names, output_names, activation='TANH', inner_activation='SIGMOID_HARD', output_all=False, reverse_input=False)¶ Add a GatedRecurrent Unit (GRU) layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
W_h: [numpy.array]
List of recursion weight matrices. The ordering is [R_z, R_r, R_o], where R_z, R_r and R_o are weight matrices at update gate, reset gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, hidden_size).
W_x: [numpy.array]
List of input weight matrices. The ordering is [W_z, W_r, W_o], where W_z, W_r, and W_o are weight matrices at update gate, reset gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, input_size).
b: [numpy.array]  None
List of biases of the GRU layer. The ordering is [b_z, b_r, b_o], where b_z, b_r, b_o are biases at update gate, reset gate and output gate. If None, biases are ignored. Otherwise the shapes of the biases are (hidden_size, ).
hidden_size: int
Number of hidden units. This is equal to the number of channels of output shape.
input_size: int
Number of the number of channels of input shape.
activation: str
Activation function used at the output gate. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’]. Defaults to ‘TANH’. See add_activation for more detailed description.
inner_activation: str
Inner activation function used at update and reset gates. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’]. Defaults to ‘SIGMOID_HARD’. See add_activation for more detailed description.
input_names: [str]
The input blob name list of this layer, in the order of [x, h_input].
output_names: [str]
The output blob name list of this layer, in the order of [y, h_output].
output_all: boolean
Whether the recurrent layer should output at every time step.
 If False, the output is the result after the final state update.
 If True, the output is a sequence, containing outputs at all time steps.
reverse_input: boolean
Whether the recurrent layer should process the input sequence in the reverse order.
 If False, the input sequence order is not reversed.
 If True, the input sequence order is reversed.
See also

add_inner_product
(name, W, b, input_channels, output_channels, has_bias, input_name, output_name)¶ Add an inner product layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer
W: numpy.array
Weight matrix of shape (output_channels, input_channels).
b: numpy.array
Bias vector of shape (output_channels, ).
input_channels: int
Number of input channels.
output_channels: int
Number of output channels.
has_bias: boolean
Whether the bias vector of this layer is ignored in the spec.
 If True, the bias vector of this layer is not ignored.
 If False, the bias vector is ignored.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_l2_normalize
(name, input_name, output_name, epsilon=1e05)¶ Add L2 normalize layer. Normalizes the input by the L2 norm, i.e. divides by the the square root of the sum of squares of all elements of the input along C, H and W dimensions.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
epsilon: float
small bias to avoid division by zero.

add_load_constant
(name, output_name, constant_value, shape)¶ Add a load constant layer.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
constant_value: numpy.array
value of the constant as a numpy array.
shape: [int]
List of ints representing the shape of the constant. Must be of length 3: [C,H,W]
See also

add_lrn
(name, input_name, output_name, alpha, beta, local_size, k=1.0)¶ Add a LRN (local response normalization) layer. Please see the LRNLayerParams message in Core ML neural network protobuf for more information about the operation of this layer. Supports “across” channels normalization.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
alpha: float
multiplicative constant in the denominator.
beta: float
exponent of the normalizing term in the denominator.
k: float
bias term in the denominator. Must be positive.
local_size: int
size of the neighborhood along the channel axis.
See also

add_mvn
(name, input_name, output_name, across_channels=True, normalize_variance=True, epsilon=1e05)¶ Add an MVN (mean variance normalization) layer. Computes mean, variance and normalizes the input.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
across_channels: boolean
If False, each channel plane is normalized separately If True, mean/variance is computed across all C, H and W dimensions
normalize_variance: boolean
If False, only mean subtraction is performed.
epsilon: float
small bias to avoid division by zero.
See also

add_optionals
(optionals_in, optionals_out)¶ Add optional inputs and outputs to the model spec.
Parameters: optionals_in: [str]
List of inputs that are optionals.
optionals_out: [str]
List of outputs that are optionals.
See also

add_padding
(name, left=0, right=0, top=0, bottom=0, value=0, input_name='data', output_name='out', padding_type='constant')¶ Add a padding layer to the model. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
left: int
Number of elements to be padded on the left side of the input blob.
right: int
Number of elements to be padded on the right side of the input blob.
top: int
Number of elements to be padded on the top of the input blob.
bottom: int
Number of elements to be padded on the bottom of the input blob.
value: float
Value of the elements padded. Used only when padding_type = ‘constant’
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
padding_type: str
Type of the padding. Can be one of ‘constant’, ‘reflection’ or ‘replication’
See also

add_permute
(name, dim, input_name, output_name)¶ Add a permute layer. Assumes that the input has dimensions in the order [Seq, C, H, W]
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
dim: tuple
The order in which to permute the input dimensions = [seq,C,H,W]. Must have length 4 and a permutation of
[0, 1, 2, 3]
.examples:
Lets say input has shape: [seq, C, H, W].
If
dim
is set to[0, 3, 1, 2]
, then the output has shape[W,C,H]
and has the same sequence length that of the input.If
dim
is set to[3, 1, 2, 0]
, and the input is a sequence of data with lengthSeq
and shape[C, 1, 1]
, then the output is a unit sequence of data with shape[C, 1, Seq]
.If
dim
is set to[0, 3, 2, 1]
, the output is a reverse of the input:[C, H, W] > [W, H, C]
.If
dim
is not set, or is set to[0, 1, 2, 3]
, the output is the same as the input.input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_pooling
(name, height, width, stride_height, stride_width, layer_type, padding_type, input_name, output_name, exclude_pad_area=True, is_global=False, padding_top=0, padding_bottom=0, padding_left=0, padding_right=0, same_padding_asymmetry_mode='BOTTOM_RIGHT_HEAVY')¶ Add a pooling layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
height: int
Height of pooling region.
width: int
Width of pooling region.
stride_height: int
Stride along the height direction.
stride_width: int
Stride along the width direction.
layer_type: str
Type of pooling performed. Can either be ‘MAX’, ‘AVERAGE’ or ‘L2’.
padding_type: str
Option for the type of pading and output blob shape. Can be either ‘VALID’ , ‘SAME’ or ‘INCLUDE_LAST_PIXEL’. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
exclude_pad_area: boolean
Whether to exclude padded area in the ‘AVERAGE’ pooling operation. Defaults to True.
 If True, the value of the padded area will be excluded.
 If False, the padded area will be included.
This flag is only used with average pooling.
is_global: boolean
Whether the pooling operation is global. Defaults to False.
 If True, the pooling operation is global – the pooling region is of the same size of the input blob.
Parameters height, width, stride_height, stride_width will be ignored.
 If False, the pooling operation is not global.
padding_top, padding_bottom, padding_left, padding_right: int
values of height (top, bottom) and width (left, right) padding to be used if padding type is “VALID” or “INCLUDE_LAST_PIXEL”.
same_padding_asymmetry_mode : str.
Type of asymmetric padding to be used when padding_type = ‘SAME’. Can be either ‘BOTTOM_RIGHT_HEAVY’ or ‘TOP_LEFT_HEAVY’. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
See also

add_reduce
(name, input_name, output_name, axis, mode, epsilon=1e06)¶ Add a reduce layer. Applies the function specified by the parameter mode, along dimension(s) specified by the parameter axis.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
axis: str
dimensions along which the reduction operation is applied. Allowed values: ‘CHW’, ‘HW’, ‘C’, ‘H’, ‘W’
mode: str
Reduction operation to be applied. Allowed values: ‘sum’, ‘avg’, ‘prod’, ‘logsum’, ‘sumsquare’, ‘L1’, ‘L2’, ‘max’, ‘min’, ‘argmax’. ‘argmax’ is only suuported with axis values ‘C’, ‘H’ and ‘W’.
epsilon: float
number that is added to the input when ‘logsum’ function is applied.
See also

add_reorganize_data
(name, input_name, output_name, mode='SPACE_TO_DEPTH', block_size=2)¶ Add a data reorganization layer of type “SPACE_TO_DEPTH” or “DEPTH_TO_SPACE”.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
mode: str
 If mode == ‘SPACE_TO_DEPTH’: data is moved from the spatial to the channel dimension. Input is spatially divided into nonoverlapping blocks of size block_size X block_size and data from each block is moved to the channel dimension. Output CHW dimensions are: [C * block_size * block_size, H/block_size, C/block_size].
 If mode == ‘DEPTH_TO_SPACE’: data is moved from the channel to the spatial dimension. Reverse of the operation ‘SPACE_TO_DEPTH’. Output CHW dimensions are: [C/(block_size * block_size), H * block_size, C * block_size].
block_size: int
Must be greater than 1. Must divide H and W, when mode is ‘SPACE_TO_DEPTH’. (block_size * block_size) must divide C when mode is ‘DEPTH_TO_SPACE’.
See also

add_reshape
(name, input_name, output_name, target_shape, mode)¶ Add a reshape layer. Kindly refer to NeuralNetwork.proto for details.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
target_shape: tuple
Shape of the output blob. The product of target_shape must be equal to the shape of the input blob. Can be either length 3 (C,H,W) or length 4 (Seq,C,H,W).
mode: int
 If mode == 0, the reshape layer is in CHANNEL_FIRST mode.
 If mode == 1, the reshape layer is in CHANNEL_LAST mode.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_scale
(name, W, b, has_bias, input_name, output_name, shape_scale=[1], shape_bias=[1])¶ Add scale layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
W: int  numpy.array
Scale of the input.
b: int  numpy.array
Bias to add to the input.
has_bias: boolean
Whether the bias vector of this layer is ignored in the spec.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
shape_scale: [int]
List of ints that specifies the shape of the scale parameter. Can be [1] or [C] or [1,H,W] or [C,H,W].
shape_bias: [int]
List of ints that specifies the shape of the bias parameter (if present). Can be [1] or [C] or [1,H,W] or [C,H,W].
See also

add_sequence_repeat
(name, nrep, input_name, output_name)¶ Add sequence repeat layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
nrep: int
Number of repetitions of the input blob along the sequence axis.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_simple_rnn
(name, W_h, W_x, b, hidden_size, input_size, activation, input_names, output_names, output_all=False, reverse_input=False)¶ Add a simple recurrent layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
W_h: numpy.array
Weights of the recurrent layer’s hidden state. Must be of shape (hidden_size, hidden_size).
W_x: numpy.array
Weights of the recurrent layer’s input. Must be of shape (hidden_size, input_size).
b: numpy.array  None
Bias of the recurrent layer’s output. If None, bias is ignored. Otherwise it must be of shape (hidden_size, ).
hidden_size: int
Number of hidden units. This is equal to the number of channels of output shape.
input_size: int
Number of the number of channels of input shape.
activation: str
Activation function name. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’]. See add_activation for more detailed description.
input_names: [str]
The input blob name list of this layer, in the order of [x, h_input].
output_name: [str]
The output blob name list of this layer, in the order of [y, h_output].
output_all: boolean
Whether the recurrent layer should output at every time step.
 If False, the output is the result after the final state update.
 If True, the output is a sequence, containing outputs at all time steps.
reverse_input: boolean
Whether the recurrent layer should process the input sequence in the reverse order.
 If False, the input sequence order is not reversed.
 If True, the input sequence order is reversed.
See also

add_slice
(name, input_name, output_name, axis, start_index=0, end_index=1, stride=1)¶ Add a slice layer. Equivalent to to numpy slice [start_index:end_index:stride], start_index is included, while end_index is exclusive.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
axis: str
 axis along which input is sliced.
allowed values: ‘channel’, ‘height’, ‘width’
start_index: int
must be nonnegative.
end_index: int
negative indexing is supported.
stride: int
must be positive.
See also

add_softmax
(name, input_name, output_name)¶ Add a softmax layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
See also

add_split
(name, input_name, output_names)¶ Add a Split layer that uniformly splits the input along the channel dimension to produce multiple outputs.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_names: [str]
List of output blob names of this layer.
See also

add_unary
(name, input_name, output_name, mode, alpha=1.0, shift=0, scale=1.0, epsilon=1e06)¶ Add a Unary layer. Applies the specified function (mode) to all the elements of the input. Please see the UnaryFunctionLayerParams message in Core ML neural network protobuf for more information about the operation of this layer. Prior to the application of the function the input can be scaled and shifted by using the ‘scale’, ‘shift’ parameters.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
mode: str
Unary function. Allowed values: ‘sqrt’, ‘rsqrt’, ‘inverse’, ‘power’, ‘exp’, ‘log’, ‘abs’, threshold’.
alpha: float
constant used in with modes ‘power’ and ‘threshold’.
shift, scale: float
input is modified by scale and shift prior to the application of the unary function.
epsilon: float
small bias to prevent division by zero.
See also

add_unilstm
(name, W_h, W_x, b, hidden_size, input_size, input_names, output_names, inner_activation='SIGMOID', cell_state_update_activation='TANH', output_activation='TANH', peep=None, output_all=False, forget_bias=False, coupled_input_forget_gate=False, cell_clip_threshold=50000.0, reverse_input=False)¶ Add a Unidirectional LSTM layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
W_h: [numpy.array]
List of recursion weight matrices. The ordering is [R_i, R_f, R_z, R_o], where R_i, R_f, R_z, R_o are weight matrices at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, hidden_size).
W_x: [numpy.array]
List of input weight matrices. The ordering is [W_i, W_f, W_z, W_o], where W_i, W_f, W_z, W_o are weight matrices at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. The shapes of these matrices are (hidden_size, input_size).
b: [numpy.array]  None
List of biases. The ordering is [b_i, b_f, b_z, b_o], where b_i, b_f, b_z, b_o are biases at input gate, forget gate, cell gate and output gate. If None, biases are ignored. Otherwise the shapes of the biases are (hidden_size, ).
hidden_size: int
Number of hidden units. This is equal to the number of channels of output shape.
input_size: int
Number of the number of channels of input shape.
input_names: [str]
The input blob name list of this layer, in the order of [x, h_input, c_input].
output_names: [str]
The output blob name list of this layer, in the order of [y, h_output, c_output].
inner_activation: str
Inner activation function used at input and forget gate. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’].
cell_state_update_activation: str
Cell state update activation function used at the cell state update gate. [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’].
output_activation: str
Activation function used at the output gate. Can be one of the following option: [‘RELU’, ‘TANH’, ‘SIGMOID’, ‘SCALED_TANH’, ‘SIGMOID_HARD’, ‘LINEAR’].
peep: [numpy.array]  None
List of peephole vectors. The ordering is [p_i, p_f, p_o], where p_i, p_f, and p_o are peephole vectors at input gate, forget gate, output gate. The shapes of the peephole vectors are (hidden_size,).
output_all: boolean
Whether the LSTM layer should output at every time step.
 If False, the output is the result after the final state update.
 If True, the output is a sequence, containing outputs at all time steps.
forget_bias: boolean
If True, a vector of 1s is added to forget gate bias.
coupled_input_forget_gate: boolean
If True, the inpute gate and forget gate is coupled. i.e. forget gate is not used.
cell_clip_threshold: float
The limit on the maximum and minimum values on the cell state. If not provided, it is defaulted to 50.0.
reverse_input: boolean
Whether the LSTM layer should process the input sequence in the reverse order.
 If False, the input sequence order is not reversed.
 If True, the input sequence order is reversed.
See also

add_upsample
(name, scaling_factor_h, scaling_factor_w, input_name, output_name, mode='NN')¶ Add upsample layer to the model.
Parameters: name: str
The name of this layer.
scaling_factor_h: int
Scaling factor on the vertical direction.
scaling_factor_w: int
Scaling factor on the horizontal direction.
input_name: str
The input blob name of this layer.
output_name: str
The output blob name of this layer.
mode: str
Following values are supported: ‘NN’: nearest neighbour ‘BILINEAR’ : bilinear interpolation
See also

set_class_labels
(class_labels, predicted_feature_name='classLabel', prediction_blob='')¶ Set class labels to the model spec to make it a neural network classifier.
Parameters: class_labels: list[int or str]
A list of integers or strings that map the index of the output of a neural network to labels in a classifier.
predicted_feature_name: str
Name of the output feature for the class labels exposed in the Core ML neural network classifier. Defaults to ‘class_output’.
prediction_blob: str
If provided, then this is the name of the neural network blob which generates the probabilities for each class label (typically the output of a softmax layer). If not provided, then the last output layer is assumed.
See also

set_input
(input_names, input_dims)¶ Set the inputs of the network spec.
Parameters: input_names: [str]
List of input names of the network.
input_dims: [tuple]
List of input dimensions of the network. The ordering of input_dims is the same as input_names.
See also
Examples
# Set the neural network spec inputs to be 3 dimensional vector data1 and # 4 dimensional vector data2. >>> builder.set_input(input_names = ['data1', 'data2'], [(3,), (4,)])

set_output
(output_names, output_dims)¶ Set the outputs of the network spec.
Parameters: output_names: [str]
List of output names of the network.
output_dims: [tuple]
List of output dimensions of the network. The ordering of output_dims is the same as output_names.
See also
Examples
# Set the neural network spec outputs to be 3 dimensional vector feature1 and # 4 dimensional vector feature2. >>> builder.set_output(output_names = ['feature1', 'feature2'], [(3,), (4,)])

set_pre_processing_parameters
(image_input_names=[], is_bgr=False, red_bias=0.0, green_bias=0.0, blue_bias=0.0, gray_bias=0.0, image_scale=1.0)¶ Add preprocessing parameters to the neural network object
Parameters: image_input_names: [str]
Name if input blobs that are images
is_bgr: boolean  dict()
Image pixel order (RGB or BGR)
red_bias: float  dict()
Image recentering parameter (red channel)
blue_bias: float  dict()
Image recentering parameter (blue channel)
green_bias: float  dict()
Image recentering parameter (green channel)
gray_bias: float  dict()
Image recentering parameter (for grayscale images)
image_scale: float  dict()
Value by which to scale the images.
See also
