Tenants

Warning

Tenants are currently experimental and are not recommended for use in production.

FoundationDB provides a feature called tenants that allow you to configure one or more named transaction domains in your cluster. A transaction domain is a key-space in which a transaction is allowed to operate, and no tenant operations are allowed to use keys outside the tenant key-space. Tenants can be useful for managing separate, unrelated use-cases and preventing them from interfering with each other. They can also be helpful for defining safe boundaries when moving a subset of data between clusters.

By default, FoundationDB has a single transaction domain that contains both the normal key-space (['', '\xff')) as well as the system keys (['\xff', '\xff\xff')) and the Special Keys (['\xff\xff', '\xff\xff\xff')).

Overview

A tenant in a FoundationDB cluster maps a byte-string name to a key-space that can be used to store data associated with that tenant. This key-space is stored in the clusters global key-space under a prefix assigned to that tenant, with each tenant being assigned a separate non-intersecting prefix.

Tenant operations are implicitly confined to the key-space associated with the tenant. It is not necessary for client applications to use or be aware of the prefix assigned to the tenant.

Enabling tenants

In order to use tenants, the cluster must be configured with an appropriate tenant mode using fdbcli:

fdb> configure tenant_mode=<MODE>

FoundationDB clusters support the following tenant modes:

  • disabled - Tenants cannot be created or used. Disabled is the default tenant mode.
  • optional_experimental - Tenants can be created. Each transaction can choose whether or not to use a tenant. This mode is primarily intended for migration and testing purposes, and care should be taken to avoid conflicts between tenant and non-tenant data.
  • required_experimental - Tenants can be created. Each normal transaction must use a tenant. To support special access needs, transactions will be permitted to access the raw key-space using the RAW_ACCESS transaction option.

Creating and deleting tenants

Tenants can be created and deleted using the \xff\xff/management/tenant_map/<tenant_name> special key range as well as by using APIs provided in some language bindings.

Tenants can be created with any byte-string name that does not begin with the \xff character. Once created, a tenant will be assigned an ID and a prefix where its data will reside.

In order to delete a tenant, it must first be empty. If a tenant contains any keys, they must be cleared prior to deleting the tenant.

Using tenants

In order to use the key-space associated with an existing tenant, you must open the tenant using the Database object provided by your language binding. The resulting Tenant object can be used to create transactions much like with a Database, and the resulting transactions will be restricted to the tenant’s key-space.

All operations performed within a tenant transaction will occur within the tenant key-space. It is not necessary to use or even be aware of the prefix assigned to a tenant in the global key-space. Operations that could resolve outside of the tenant key-space (e.g. resolving key selectors) will be clamped to the tenant.

Note

Tenant transactions are not permitted to access system keys.

Raw access

When operating in the tenant mode required_experimental, transactions are not ordinarily permitted to run without using a tenant. In order to access the system keys or perform maintenance operations that span multiple tenants, it is required to use the RAW_ACCESS transaction option to access the global key-space. It is an error to specify RAW_ACCESS on a transaction that is configured to use a tenant.

Note

Setting the READ_SYSTEM_KEYS or ACCESS_SYSTEM_KEYS options implies RAW_ACCESS for your transaction.

Note

Many special keys operations access parts of the system keys and will implictly enable raw access on the transactions in which they are used.

Warning

Care should be taken when using raw access to run transactions spanning multiple tenants if the tenant feature is being utilized to aid in moving data between clusters. In such scenarios, it may not be guaranteed that all of the data you intend to access is on a single cluster.