Converting a torchvision Model from PyTorch#

The following example shows how to convert into Core ML a MobileNetV2 model trained using PyTorch. MobileNet is a type of convolutional neural network designed for mobile and embedded vision applications.

The example is similar to the one provided in Getting Started, in which you convert the TensorFlow version of the model.

In this example you do the following:

  1. Load a pre-trained model from torchvision, a package of datasets, model architectures, and common image transformations.

  2. Trace the model to generate TorchScript using the torch.jit.trace command.

  3. Download the class labels.

  4. Preprocess the image input for torchvision models.

  5. Convert the traced model to Core ML using the convert() method.

  6. Load an image to use for testing.

  7. Make a prediction with the converted model.

  8. Make a prediction with the original torch-traced model for comparison.

Once you have converted the model, you can follow the steps in Save and Load the Model and Use the Model with Xcode.


This example requires PyTorch and Torchvision. Use the following commands:

pip install torch
pip install torchvision
pip install -U coremltools

Load the MobileNetV2 Model#

The example uses a pre-trained version of the MobileNetV2 model from torchvision. Follow these steps:

  1. Load the pre-trained version of MobileNetV2:

    import torch
    import torchvision
    # Load a pre-trained version of MobileNetV2 model.
    torch_model = torchvision.models.mobilenet_v2(pretrained=True)
  2. Set the model to evaluation mode:

    # Set the model in evaluation mode.

Set the Model to Evaluation Mode

To ensure that operations such as dropout are disabled, it’s important to set the model to evaluation mode (not training mode) before tracing. This setting also results in a more optimized version of the model for conversion.

Trace the Model#

The process of tracing takes an example input and traces its flow through the model. To understand the reasons for tracing and how to trace a PyTorch model, see Model Tracing.

You can trace the model by creating an example image input, as shown in the following code using random data. The rank and shape of the tensor depends on your model’s use case. If your model expects a fixed-size input, use that size for the example image. In all cases, the rank of the tensor must be fixed.

# Trace the model with random data.
example_input = torch.rand(1, 3, 224, 224) 
traced_model = torch.jit.trace(torch_model, example_input)
out = traced_model(example_input)

Download the Class Labels#

MobileNetV2 is pre-trained on the ImageNet benchmark dataset. Download the class labels from the labels text file, and remove the first class (which is the background):

# Download class labels in ImageNetLabel.txt.
import urllib
label_url = ''
class_labels = urllib.request.urlopen(label_url).read().decode("utf-8").splitlines()
class_labels = class_labels[1:] # remove the first class which is background
assert len(class_labels) == 1000

Preprocess the Image Input for torchvision Models#

Image-based models typically require the input image to be preprocessed before using it with the converted model. For the details of how to preprocess image input for torchvision models, see Preprocessing for Torch.

The Core ML Tools ImageType input type lets you specify the scale and bias parameters. The scale is applied to the image first, and then the bias is added. Import coremltools, and before converting, specify the ImageType input type as follows:

# Set the image scale and bias for input image preprocessing.
import coremltools as ct
scale = 1/(0.226*255.0)
bias = [- 0.485/(0.229) , - 0.456/(0.224), - 0.406/(0.225)]

image_input = ct.ImageType(name="input_1",
                           scale=scale, bias=bias)

Images for Input and Output

By default, the Core ML Tools converter generates a Core ML model with inputs of type MLMultiArray. By providing an additional inputs argument, as shown in the next section, you can use either TensorType or ImageType. This example uses ImageType. To learn how to work with images for input and output, see Image Input and Output.

Convert to Core ML#

Convert the model to an ML program using the Core ML Tools convert() method. Specify the inputs parameter with the preprocessed image_input from the previous section:

# Using image_input in the inputs parameter:
# Convert to Core ML using the Unified Conversion API.
model = ct.convert(
    classifier_config = ct.ClassifierConfig(class_labels),

Save the ML program using the .mlpackage extension. It may also be helpful to display a confirmation message:

# Save the converted model."mobilenet.mlpackage")
# Print a confirmation message.
print('model converted and saved')

You can now incorporate this model into an application in Xcode, as described in Use the Model With Xcode.

The above example also sets the class_labels for classifying the image, and the compute_units to restrict execution to the CPU. For more information about compute_units, see Set the Compute Units.

Load the Test Image#

The next step is to load an image using PIL, to use as input for testing the original PyTorch model and the converted model. Resize the input image for consistency so that it is 224 x 224 pixels, and specify LANCZOS for the algorithm to use for resampling pixels from one size to another:

from PIL import Image

# Load the test image and resize to 224, 224.
img_path = "daisy.jpg"
img =
img = img.resize([224, 224], Image.LANCZOS)

Right-click the following image and save it as daisy.jpg in the same folder as your Python project.

Daisy image

Get the protobuf spec#

To get the fields and types used in the model, get the protobuf spec with get_spec(), and select the dictionaryType output to use for displaying the results:

# Get the protobuf spec of the model.
spec = model.get_spec()
for out in spec.description.output:
    if out.type.WhichOneof('Type') == "dictionaryType":
        coreml_dict_name =

Make a Core ML Prediction#

You can now make a prediction with the converted model, using the test image. To learn more about making predictions, see Model Prediction. The code for coreml_out_dict["classLabel"] returns the top-level class label.

import numpy as np

# Make a prediction with the Core ML version of the model.
coreml_out_dict = model.predict({"input_1" : img})
print("coreml predictions: ")
print("top class label: ", coreml_out_dict["classLabel"])

coreml_prob_dict = coreml_out_dict[coreml_dict_name]

values_vector = np.array(list(coreml_prob_dict.values()))
keys_vector = list(coreml_prob_dict.keys())
top_3_indices_coreml = np.argsort(-values_vector)[:3]
for i in range(3):
    idx = top_3_indices_coreml[i]
    score_value = values_vector[idx]
    class_id = keys_vector[idx]
    print("class name: {}, raw score value: {}".format(class_id, score_value))

When you run this example, the output should be something like the following, using the image of a daisy as the input:

coreml predictions: 
top class label:  daisy
class name: daisy, raw score value: 15.685693740844727
class name: vase, raw score value: 8.516246795654297
class name: ant, raw score value: 8.185517311096191

Make a PyTorch Prediction and Compare#

To test the accuracy of the converted model with respect to the traced (TorchScript) model, make a prediction with the test image using the original PyTorch model.

Convert the Image to a Tensor#

Convert the image to a tensor for input into the PyTorch model:

  1. Convert the PIL image to a numPy array, and add a dimension. The result is (1, 224, 224, 3).

  2. The PyTorch model expects as input a torch tensor of shape (1, 3, 224, 224), so you need to reshape the numPy array from the previous step by transposing it.

  3. The PyTorch model was trained assuming that the input is normalized to the pixel range of [0,1]. However, this example tests the model with a PIL image as input, which is in the range of [0,255]. Therefore, divide the array by 255.

  4. Convert the array to a tensor for input to the PyTorch model.

# Make a prediction with the Torch version of the model:
# prepare the input numpy array.
img_np = np.asarray(img).astype(np.float32) # (224, 224, 3)
img_np = img_np[np.newaxis, :, :, :] # (1, 224, 224, 3)
img_np = np.transpose(img_np, [0, 3, 1, 2]) # (1, 3, 224, 224)
img_np = img_np / 255.0
torch_tensor_input = torch.from_numpy(img_np)

Make a Prediction with Torch and Print Outputs#

The torchvision transforms.Normalize class normalizes a tensor image with the mean and standard deviation. To script the transformation, use torch.nn.Sequential:

# Preprocess model for Torch.
transform_model = torch.nn.Sequential(
    torchvision.transforms.Normalize(mean=(0.485, 0.456, 0.406),
                                     std=(0.229, 0.224, 0.225)),

Make a prediction using the traced PyTorch model and the normalized image, and print the output, including the top three indices and the score value for each one:

# Invoke prediction and print outputs.
torch_out = traced_model(transform_model(torch_tensor_input))

torch_out_np = torch_out.detach().numpy().squeeze()
top_3_indices = np.argsort(-torch_out_np)[:3]
print('torch top 3 predictions: ')
for i in range(3):
    idx = top_3_indices[i]
    score_value = torch_out_np[idx]
    class_id = class_labels[idx]
    print("class name: {}, raw score value: {}".format(class_id, score_value))

When you run this example, the output should be something like the following, using the image of a daisy as the input:

torch top 3 predictions: 
class name: daisy, raw score value: 15.642789840698242
class name: vase, raw score value: 8.53633975982666
class name: ant, raw score value: 8.257798194885254

As you can see from the results, the converted model performs very closely to the original model — the raw score values are very similar.